This elaboration outcome increases confidence that the original relationship is nonspurious.

In elaboration analysis, this controls for the extraneous variable.

The association between two variables when no other variable is controlled.

Two or more independent variables in a multiple regression are highly correlated with one another.

In this elaboration outcome, an antecedent variable creates a spurious association between X and Y.

X → T → Y indicates that X has an ________ on Y.

Produced by omitting important variables from a statistical model.

Simultaneously controls for the effects of several independent variables.

Multivariate analysis involving three-variable contingency tables.

Displays the causal links between all variables in a complex model and provides estimates of the direct and indirect effects of one variable on another.

Refer to the random processes in a statistical model.

In this elaboration outcome, the control variable is intervening and there is no association in either partial table.