Produced by omitting important variables from a statistical model.

Refer to the random processes in a statistical model.

Displays the causal links between all variables in a complex model and provides estimates of the direct and indirect effects of one variable on another.

In elaboration analysis, this controls for the extraneous variable.

In this elaboration outcome, the control variable is intervening and there is no association in either partial table.

X → T → Y indicates that X has an ________ on Y.

In this elaboration outcome, an antecedent variable creates a spurious association between X and Y.

Multivariate analysis involving three-variable contingency tables.

This elaboration outcome increases confidence that the original relationship is nonspurious.

The association between two variables when no other variable is controlled.

Two or more independent variables in a multiple regression are highly correlated with one another.

Simultaneously controls for the effects of several independent variables.

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