Use of dissimilar measures or methods to address the same research question.

Used to compare outcomes across studies in a meta-analysis.

A statistical framework for meta-analysis.

In contrast to indexes, scales are designed to ensure this.

Based on this procedure, it is possible to infer the values or responses on each item from the total score on a set of items.

Rather than create a composite measure, the effects of each indicator are analyzed separately.

Adding up the responses to multiple items creates a(n) ________.

Commonly used in experimental research to increase external validity.

Uses response categories ranging from “strongly agree” to “strongly disagree.”

Like a literature review, but more systematic.