Used to compare outcomes across studies in a meta-analysis.

Like a literature review, but more systematic.

Use of dissimilar measures or methods to address the same research question.

A statistical framework for meta-analysis.

Uses response categories ranging from “strongly agree” to “strongly disagree.”

Rather than create a composite measure, the effects of each indicator are analyzed separately.

In contrast to indexes, scales are designed to ensure this.

Based on this procedure, it is possible to infer the values or responses on each item from the total score on a set of items.

Adding up the responses to multiple items creates a(n) ________.

Commonly used in experimental research to increase external validity.