Commonly used in experimental research to increase external validity.

In contrast to indexes, scales are designed to ensure this.

Like a literature review, but more systematic.

Used to compare outcomes across studies in a meta-analysis.

Uses response categories ranging from “strongly agree” to “strongly disagree.”

Based on this procedure, it is possible to infer the values or responses on each item from the total score on a set of items.

A statistical framework for meta-analysis.

Rather than create a composite measure, the effects of each indicator are analyzed separately.

Use of dissimilar measures or methods to address the same research question.

Adding up the responses to multiple items creates a(n) ________.

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