A question that applies to some respondents but not to others.

A series of responses ranging from “strongly agree” to “strongly disagree.”

Tendency to give answers that project a favorable self-image.

Laboratory pretesting techniques designed to reveal the thought processes involved in answering survey questions.

This type of question assumes that respondents project their feelings and opinions onto others.

The development of an accounting scheme for formulating questions to find out the basis of people’s decisions.

This is an example: “Did you file federal and state income tax returns last year?”

A field pretesting technique that describes the frequency of problematic respondent and interview behaviors.

This type of question requires considerable effort from respondents and interviewers.

A series of questions that moves from a very general question to progressively more specific questions.

This is an example: “Are you concerned with the growing menace of military-style, semi-automatic assault weapons?”

This type of question has a fixed set of response alternatives.