May be used to reach different sets of respondents or to ask different types of questions.

To study relationships among social actors, every person in the group is surveyed.

The least expensive survey mode, which also tends to have the lowest sample quality.

Traces changes over time by asking questions of independent samples of the same target population.

Systematic measurement error associated with question wording or characteristics of respondents and interviewers.

This survey mode takes the least time but also requires the simplest questions.

Traces changes over time by repeatedly asking questions of the same individuals.

In this type of interview, interviewers are not supposed to deviate from question order or wording.

Questionnaire form used by an interviewer.

The most common survey design.

Automates data collection by prompting introductions to questions, skipping irrelevant questions, and entering data directly into a computer file.

The most costly survey mode.