Chapter 7 Learning Objectives:

  1. Describe the logic of experimentation: how experiments effectively meet the criteria for establishing causality.
  2. Discuss why external validity is generally low in experiments and how researchers attempt to enhance it.
  3. Describe the steps in the process of planning and conducting an experiment and apply them to a research hypothesis.
  4. Analyze the problem of reactive measurement in experiments in terms of demand characteristics and experimenter effects.
  5. Describe the use and the relative advantages and disadvantages of experimentation outside the laboratory.