It is hypothesized that women drink less than men. Gender is the ________ variable.

Examples in sociology are individual people, families, schools, nations, and artifacts such as newspapers and books.

Examples are ratio of men to women and average SAT score of Harvard students.

The overall plan of an empirical study.

Created when an antecedent variable is a common cause of two variables.

Tests of ________ indicate whether an association between variables is likely to have occurred by chance.

Rejecting the ________ implies that the research hypothesis is supported.

Measures the strength and direction of the association between two quantitative variables.

One object of research design is to identify and control as many of these variables as possible.

A causal criterion often based on theoretical reasoning.

Specifying the ________ in a relationship enhances theoretical understanding.

A variable that the researcher tries to explain or predict.

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