A variable that the researcher tries to explain or predict.

Measures the strength and direction of the association between two quantitative variables.

One object of research design is to identify and control as many of these variables as possible.

May occur when researchers draw conclusions about individuals from group-level data.

Specifying the ________ in a relationship enhances theoretical understanding.

Rejecting the ________ implies that the research hypothesis is supported.

Examples are ratio of men to women and average SAT score of Harvard students.

A causal criterion often based on theoretical reasoning.

It is hypothesized that women drink less than men. Gender is the ________ variable.

Created when an antecedent variable is a common cause of two variables.

Tests of ________ indicate whether an association between variables is likely to have occurred by chance.

The overall plan of an empirical study.