In field research, this may be safeguarded by using fictitious names for individuals, groups, and locations.

Secures research participants’ right to privacy.

This principle alerts social scientists to consider the impact of social values on the research process.

May be carried out by the IRB chairperson or by other IRB members designated by the chairperson.

Poses questions concerning how to conduct research in moral and responsible ways.

Protects participants’ freedom of choice to participate in research.

Professional societies and journals have introduced this to enhance transparency and reduce likelihood of scientific fraud.

Can be a helpful first step in examining the ethics of a proposed study.

Federal regulations for protecting research participants.

An essential procedure in studies involving deception that serves methodological and educational purposes.

The final arbiter of the ethics of proposed studies at virtually all colleges and universities in the U.S.