Chapter 2 Learning Objectives: 

  1. Define scientific knowledge in terms of description, explanation, prediction, and understanding.
  2. Distinguish between deductive and inductive reasoning.
  3. Describe how deductive and inductive logic are used in research to move between theory and data.
  4. Describe how empiricism, objectivity, and control guide scientists’ collection and evaluation of evidence.
  5. Recognize the limits of scientific knowledge and the challenges to a natural science model of social science.