1. Kant’s ethics is called deontological (from the Greek word for “duty”) because he believes that the value of an act is in the act itself rather than in its consequences (as teleologists hold). Deontological ethics has been criticized as being too rigid. Do you think that this is true? Should the notion of consequences be taken into consideration?
  1. According to Frankena, what difficulty exists in Kant’s theory “due to conflicts between duties”?
  1. What is W. D. Ross’s argument against all types of utilitarianism?
  1. What does Ross mean by prima facie duty? How does this notion separate his theory from Kant’s?
  1. Does morality depend on religion for its validity or does it have independent validity? In other words, Is the Divine Command Theory true? What does Socrates seem to believe? What do you believe? Why?
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