Chapter 2 Links to additional resources

Chapter 2 Organizational structure, design, and bureaucracy: From control to flexibility – Web links

From small beginnings
In Section 2.2, some examples are given of how familiar, large-scale organizations grew from small beginnings. Some examples are:

Greggs the Bakers:
John Lewis Partnership:
Brittany Ferries:

Organization charts
See Section 2.3 Bureaucratic structure and hierarchy

This website will show the hierarchy for many large companies. There is a free membership whereby more detailed charts for 15 companies can be seen (see pages 32-8):

Some examples of organization charts include:

British Army:

Harvard University:




Job descriptions
See Section 2.3 Bureaucratic structure and hierarchy

For an example of job descriptions, the UK National Health Service (NHS) has a website with its current vacancies ( Click on any of the jobs and, scrolling towards the bottom, the job description is available amongst other documents supporting the application.

Red tape
See Section 2.8 Dysfunctions of bureaucracy

The UK government’s Red Tape challenge to identify and minimize unnecessary red tape (mentioned on p. 47 ) can be seen at:

Examples of where red tape gets in the way of people performing their work can be seen in a number of professions and areas of activity:

Post-Brexit red tape

Lorry drivers:

Farming and fisheries:

Small business:

Charity and humanitarian aid:

Visas for Ukrainian refugees

Health and social care
Munro, Eileen. (2011) The Munro Review of Child Protection. Department for Education, London. Available at:

Police and law enforcement
Berry, Jan. (2010) Reducing Bureaucracy in Policing. Home Office, London. Available at:
Adams (2015)


Dysfunctions of bureaucracy
See Section 2.8 Dysfunctions of bureaucracy

Jobsworth stories where officials have implemented rules that seem petty, and where people have been punished for seemingly minor infringements of the rules, often make the news. For example, in 2011 a pensioner with a disability in Nottinghamshire, UK, was fined £35 for parking in a disabled parking bay with the relevant accreditation badge displayed in the windscreen, but upside down (BBC News, 2011).
On one hand, the rules state that the badge must be legible. Following the rules to the letter, it was correct to issue the fine. However, the overall aim of the rules is to prevent people without the correct accreditation parking in a disabled bay. Here, we can interpret a mismatch between the spirit and aim of the rules, and their rigid implementation. See for the full story.

The contemporary environment
In Section 2.9, the changeable nature of the contemporary environment is discussed. This video is from Peter Cheese, CEO of the Chartered Institute for Personnel and Development, talking about how human resources in organizations are affected by contemporary developments.

Matrix structures at CISCO
See Section 2.9 From bureaucracy to post-bureaucracy

CISCO’s experiments with organizational structures are detailed in the following links:

See also this article about matrix structures at Unilever: