Chapter 9 Study Questions

  1. Define an “experiment” in your own words.
  2. What are the differences between independent and dependent variables?
  3. What is a research hypothesis? What three basic types of hypotheses are possible for fMRI studies, and what are their characteristics?
  4. Why do some people consider fMRI data to be epiphenomenal? What do you think about this issue?
  5. What are confounding factors in an experiment, and how can they be minimized?
  6. What are the basic principles of blocked designs? Why are they sometimes referred to as “subtractive” designs?
  7. Are blocked designs better for detection of activity or estimation of the time course of activity? Why?
  8. What is the default mode network? How was it identified in early fMRI experiments?
  9. Which brain regions show increased activity during control conditions?
  10. How are blocked designs typically used in modern fMRI practice?
  11. What are the basic principles of event-related designs?
  12. What does the term “epoch” describe in an event-related design?
  13. How do researchers often improve signal-to-noise in event-related designs?
  14. What sorts of experimental questions can be answered by event-related designs, but not by blocked designs?
  15. What is trial sorting? In what sorts of experiments would it be useful?
  16. What are semirandom designs? What advantages do they provide?
  17. What are mixed designs? Why would they be used?
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