By the end of the chapter, the student will be able to do the following:

  • Explain examples of the history of health disparities in the United States.
  • List some current-day health disparities.
  • Understand the reasons behind the current-day health disparities.
  • Describe how racism impacts health outcomes.
  • Define environmental racism.
  • Define the following: life course perspectives, cumulative disadvantage perspective, and weathering hypothesis.
  • Explain the Hispanic paradox.
  • Explain how race-based treatments in medical care can have negative outcomes.
  • Give examples of environmental justice movements that are fighting environmental disparities.