1. Describe the social and religious world into which Muhammad was born.
  1. Discuss the impact of the Crusades on Muslim–Christian relations.
  1. Analyze how Muhammad’s death led to crises and dissents.
  1. Explain the major differences between Sunni Islam and Shiah Islam.
  1. Analyze the impact and results of the Arab Spring.
  1. Compare and contrast the motivations and impact of two or more modern Islamic reformers/reformist movements.