1. Outline the main differences between the crime control model and the due process model.
The question requires an understanding that the crime control model is a reactive response to crime that aims to deal with it forcefully. The crime control model adopts the idea that repression of crime and criminal behaviour should be a central aim of criminal justice. The due process model is about the fairness of criminal justice, including fair treatment in the administration of justice and in the treatment of offenders. While your answer might explore the overlap between crime control and due process it should identify that a key difference is that the crime control model prioritises maintaining security and order whereas due process is primarily concerned with the rights of the individual, including offenders.
2. Are there any similarities between ‘crime control’ and ‘crime prevention’ strategies? How do they differ?
Crime prevention strategies are based on the assumption that potential offenders can be educated or persuaded not to break the law; that opportunities to offend can be anticipated; and that the possibility of crimes being committed can therefore be minimised or eradicated. Crime control strategies accept that crime is inevitable and set out to minimise its effects, either by restricting opportunities to offend, or by acting decisively where crimes are committed.
In addressing these strategies’ similarities, you are encouraged to explore how crime control strategies include considering the consequences of crime and reducing repeat offending and future harm. You might also explore how some ideas of deterrence are shared by crime control and crime prevention strategies.
3. What do you understand by the term ‘designing out’ crime?
This question requires you to think about crime control’s strategy of managing and regulating physical environments as a way of preventing or reducing crime. You might draw on the discussion of ‘target hardening’ as a crime control strategy and think about ideas like ‘defensible space’ and how design can impact on social interactions.
4. What are the issues surrounding the use of technology in crime control?
The use of technology is an issue of some debate and your answer to this question might explore issues around predictive technology that identifies patterns in crime and allows for resources to be targeted towards criminogenic environments or those likely to reoffend. You might also explore some of the consequences of technology such as the frequency with which we are now caught on CCTV and the controversies over technology like facial recognition software. Questions over the reliability of technology and the way it is used may also form part of your answer.
5. What are the challenges and implications of prioritising some interests over others in crime prevention?
In examining this question, you should consider how crime prevention can serve different interests. Your answer might explore the extent to which current crime control priorities actually address the concerns and experiences of most victims of crime. You might also explore how a focus on increased control can mean inconvenience, some of which we may accept, for example longer waits to go through security at airports, but some of which may be more problematic. You might also explore how reliance on some measures such as CCTV could mean less resources are available for other services and community support.