Ecological Economics

Principles of Ecological Economics 

Decision-Making Analyses

  • Cost-effectiveness analysis 
  • Cost-benefit analysis 
  • Multicriteria decision analysis 

Total Economic Value (TEV) Framework

  • Direct use value 
  • Indirect use value 
  • Option value 
  • Existence value 
  • Box 7.1 Case in Point: The Option Value of Biodiversity 
  • Estimates of TEV 

Methods of Valuing Ecosystem Services

  • Revealed preference methods 
  • Real market techniques 
  • Box 7.2 Conservation in Practice: An Example of the Market Pricing Method: Fisheries and Pollution 
  • Surrogate market techniques 
  • Cost-based techniques 
  • Stated preference methods 
  • Box 7.3 Success Story: Contingent Valuation Helps Reduce Human-Wildlife Conflict 
  • Benefits transfer method 

One Final Comment 

  • Box 7.4 Challenges & Opportunities: Taking Anthropocentrism to the Extreme
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