Community and Ecosystem Conservation

Classification of Protected Areas

  • Strict nature reserves and wilderness areas (Category I) 
  • National parks (Category II) 
  • Natural monuments (Category III) 
  • Habitat/species management area (Category IV) 
  • Protected landscape/seascape (Category V) 
  • Managed resource protected area (Category VI) 

Global Status of Protected Areas

Approaches for Choosing Protected Areas

  • Hotspots of biodiversity 
  • Ecoregions 
  • Box 14.1 Case in Point: Conserving Half: A Bold Agenda for Conservation 
  • Political and economic boundaries 
  • Ecosystem services 
  • Areas of cultural importance 

Effectiveness of Protected Areas

  • Terrestrial protected areas 
  • Marine protected areas 
  • Box 14.2 Success Story: Innovative Partnerships Protect One of Earth’s Last Remaining Marine Wilderness Areas 

Impacts on Human Well-Being

Predictors of Success

  • Effective management 
  • Stakeholder and community involvement 
  • Integrated social development and conservation goals 
  • Box 14.3 Challenges & Opportunities: Fences and Fines… or… Integrated Conservation and Development? 
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