The protected characteristics

Additional reading on the protected characteristics

  1. H. Oliver, ‘Sexual Orientation Discrimination: Perceptions, Definitions and Genuine Occupational Requirements’ (2004) 33 Industrial Law Journal 1.
  2. M. Sargeant, ‘The Employment Equality (Age) Regulations 2006: A Legitimisation of Age Discrimination in Employment’ (2006) 35 Industrial Law Journal 209.
  3. J. Swift, ‘Justifying Age Discrimination’ (2006) 35 Industrial Law Journal 228.
  4. R. Sandberg and N. Doe, ‘Religious Exemptions in Discrimination Law’ (2007) 66 Cambridge Law Journal 302.
  5. A. McColgan, ‘Reconfiguring Discrimination Law’ (2007) Public Law 74.
  6. A. McColgan, ‘Class wars? Religion and (In)equality in the Workplace’ (2009) 38 Industrial Law Journal 1.
  7. M. Sargeant, ‘Age Discrimination, Redundancy Payments and Length of Service’ (2009) 72 Modern Law Review 628.
  8. M. Connolly, ‘Homophobic Harassment Where No One is Gay’ (2009) 68 Cambridge Law Journal 265.
  9. M. Freedland and L. Vickers, ‘Religious Expression in the Workplace in the United Kingdom’ (2009) 30 Comparative Labor Law and Policy Journal 597.
  10. M. Connolly, ‘Racial Groups, Sub-Groups, the Demise of the But For Test and the Death of the Benign Motive Defence: R (on the application of E) v Governing Body of JFS’ (2010) 39 Industrial Law Journal 183.
  11. G. Pitt, ‘Keeping the Faith: Trends and Tensions in Religion or Belief Discrimination’ (2011) 40 Industrial Law Journal 384.
  12. N. Hatzis, ‘Personal Religious Beliefs in the Workplace: How Not to Define Indirect Discrimination’ (2011) 74 Modern Law Review 287.
  13. M. Connolly, Discrimination Law, 2nd edition (London, Sweet & Maxwell, 2011) ­chapter 3.
  14. S. Fredman, Discrimination Law, 2nd edition (Oxford, OUP, Clarendon Law Series, 2011) ­chapters 2 and 3.
  15. B. Hepple, Equality: The New Legal Framework 2nd edn (Oxford, Hart Publishing, 2014) Chapter 2.
  16. M. Connolly, ‘The Coalition Government and Age Discrimination’ (2012) Journal of Business Law 144.
  17. C. Monaghan, ‘Justifying Direct Age Discrimination: When Will a Mandatory Retirement Age not Amount to Direct Age Discrimination?’ (2012) Journal of Business Law 479.
  18. K. Alidadi, ‘Reasonable Accommodations for Religion and Belief: Adding Value to Article 9 ECHR and the EU’s Anti-Discrimination Approach in Employment?’ (2012) 37 European Law Review 693.
  19. Statutory Code of Practice on Employment issued by the Equality and Human Rights Commission (available at http://www.equalityhumanrights.com/uploaded_files/EqualityAct/employercode.pdf (last visited 16 March 2016)).
  20. G. Pitt, ‘Taking Religion Seriously’ (2013) 42 Industrial Law Journal 398.
  21. D. Hellman and S. Moreau (eds.), Philosophical Foundations of Discrimination Law (Oxford, OUP, 2013).
  22. L. Vickers and S. Manfredi, ‘Age Equality and Retirement: Squaring the Circle’ (2013) 42 Industrial Law Journal 61.
  23. M. Sargeant, ‘Distinguishing Between Justifiable Treatment and Prohibited Discrimination in Respect of Age’ (2013) Journal of Business Law 398.
  24. F. Hendrickx, Acting Ageing and Labour Law: Contributions in Honour of Professor Roger Blanpain (Intersentia, 2013).
  25. E. Howard, ‘Reasonable Accommodation of Religion and other Discrimination Grounds in EU Law’ (2013) 38 European Law Review 36.
  26. M. Gibson, “The God “Dilution”? Religion, Discrimination and the Case for Reasonable Accommodation” (2013) 72 Cambridge Law Journal 578.
  27. P. Alon-Shenker, ‘Nonhiring and Dismissal of Senior Workers: Is it all about the Money?’ (2014) 35 Comparative Labor Law & Policy Journal 159.
  28. R. Wintemute, ‘Does EU Law Permit Unequal Survivor’s Pensions for Same-Sex Couples? (2014) 43 Industrial Law Journal 506.
  29. R. Wintemute, “Accommodating Religious Beliefs: Harm, Clothing or Symbols, and Refusals to Serve Others” (2014) 77 Modern Law Review 223.
  30. R. McCrea, “Religion in the Workplace: Eweida and Others v UK” (2014) 77 Modern Law Review 277.
  31. C. Fenton-Glynn, ‘Replacing One Type of Oppression with Another? Same-Sex Couples and Religious Freedom’ (2014) 73 Cambridge Law Journal 31.
  32. M. Travis, ‘Accommodating Intersexuality in European Union Anti-Discrimination Law’ (2015) 21 European Law Journal 180.
  33. B. Barrett & M. Sargeant, ‘Working in the UK Without a Default Retirement Age: Health, Safety, and the Oldest Workers (2015) 44 Industrial Law Journal 75.
  34. A. Blackham, ‘Falling on Their Feet: Young Workers, Employment and Age Discrimination (2015) 44 Industrial Law Journal 246.
  35. E. Dewhurst, ‘Are Older Workers Past Their Sell-by-Date? A View from UK Age Discrimination Law’ (2015) 78 Modern Law Review 189.
  36. A. Blackham, ‘Managing without Default Retirement in Universities: A Comparative Picture from Australia’ (2015) 35 Legal Studies 502.
  37. T. Khaitan, A Theory of Discrimination Law (Oxford, OUP, 2015) Chapter 3.
  38. T. Hervey and P. Rostant, “’All About That Bass’? Is Non-Ideal-Weight Discrimination Unlawful in the UK?” (2016) 79 Modern Law Review 248.
  39. C. O’Cinneide, “Justifying Discrimination Law” (2016) 36 Oxford Journal of Legal Studies 909.
  40. M. R. Burr, “Different Routes for Protecting Caste Discrimination: Chandhok v Tirkey” (2017) 46 Industrial Law Journal 406.
  41. I. Solanke, Discrimination as Stigma: A Theory of Anti-Discrimination Law (Oxford, Hart, 2017).
  42. S. Fraser Butlin, “The CJEU Confused Over Religion” (2017) 76 Cambridge Law Journal 246.
  43. K. Malleson, ‘Equality Law and the Protected Characteristics’ (2018) 81 Modern Law Review 598.
  44. S. Atrey, “Illuminating the CJEU’s Blind Spot of Intersectional Discrimination in Parris v Trinity College Dublin” (2018) 47 Industrial Law Journal 278.
  45. A. Blackham, “Young Workers and Age Discrimination: Tensions and Conflicts” (2019) 48 Industrial Law Journal 1.
  46. S. Fraser Butlin, “Cakes in the Supreme Court” (2019) 78 Cambridge Law Journal 280.
  47. M. Steinfeld, “A Bonfire of Religious Liberties?” (2019) 78 Cambridge Law Journal 28.
  48. M. Connolly, “Lee v Ashers Baking and its Ramifications for Employment Law” (2019) 48 Industrial Law Journal 240.
  49. S. Atrey, “Race Discrimination in EU Law After Jyske Finans” (2018) 55 Common Market Law Review 625.

Additional reading on positive discrimination and the genuine occupational requirements exception

  1. C. McCrudden, ‘Rethinking Positive Action’ (1986) 15 Industrial Law Journal 219
  2. S. Fredman, ‘Reversing Discrimination’ (1997) 113 Law Quarterly Review 575.
  3. L. Barmes, ‘Promoting Diversity and the Definition of Direct Discrimination’ (2003) 32 Industrial Law Journal 200.
  4. R. Sandberg and N. Doe, ‘Religious Exemptions in Discrimination Law’ [2007] 66 Cambridge Law Journal 302.
  5. L. Barmes, ‘Equality Law and Experimentation: The Positive Action Challenge’ (2009) 68 Cambridge Law Journal 623.
  6. A. McColgan, ‘Class wars? Religion and (In)equality in the Workplace’ (2009) 38 Industrial Law Journal 1.
  7. G. Pitt, ‘Keeping the Faith: Trends and Tensions in Religion or Belief Discrimination’ (2011) 40 Industrial Law Journal 384.
  8. B. Hepple, Equality: The New Legal Framework 2nd edn. (Oxford, Hart Publishing, 2014) 105-116 and 155-163.
  9. S. Fredman, Discrimination Law, 2nd edition (Oxford, OUP, 2011) 73–74, 84–85, 106–107, and 232–278.
  10. S. Fredman, ‘Breaking the Mould: Equality as a Proactive Duty’ (2012) 60 American Journal of Comparative Law 265.
  11. S. Fredman, ‘Addressing Disparate Impact: Indirect Discrimination and the Public Sector Equality Duty (2014) 43 Industrial Law Journal 349.
  12. A. Hambler, ‘Neutrality and Workplace Restrictions on Headscarves and Religious Dresses: lessons from Achbita and Bougnaoui’ (2018) 47 Industrial Law Journal 149.
  13. S. Manfredi, L. Vickers and K. Clayton-Hathway, “The Public Sector Equality Duty: Enforcing Equality Rights Through Second-Generation Regulation” (2018) 47 Industrial Law Journal 365.
  14. S. L. Hernandez and Z. Rasnaca, “Can Workers’ Rights Ever Catch Up? The Erzberger Case and EU Cross-border Reality” (2019) 48 Industrial Law Journal 98.
  15. G. Busschart and S. De Somer, “You Can leave Your Hat on, but Not Your Headscarf: No Direct Discrimination on the Basis of Religion” (2017) 33 International Journal of Comparative Labour Law and Industrial Relations 553.

Additional reading on liability and enforcement

  1. L. Buckley, ‘Vicarious Liability and Employment Discrimination’ (1997) 26 Industrial Law Journal 158.
  2. P. Roberts, ‘Employers’ Liability for Sexual and Racial Harassment: Developing the Reasonably Practical Steps Defence’ (2001) 30 Industrial Law Journal 388.
  3. M. Connolly, Discrimination Law, 2nd edition (London, Sweet & Maxwell, 2011) 279–282 and ­chapter 12.
  4. S. Fredman, Discrimination Law, 2nd edition (Oxford, OUP, Clarendon Law Series, 2011) ­chapter 6.
  5. B. Hepple, Equality: The New Legal Framework 2nd edn (Oxford, Hart Publishing, 2014) Chapter 7.
  6. B. Hepple, ‘Enforcing Equality law: Two Steps Forward and Two Steps Backwards for Reflexive Regulation’ (2011) 40 Industrial Law Journal 315.
  7. S. B. Lahuerta, “Enforcing EU Equality Law Through Collective Redress? Lagging Behind?” (2018) 55 Common Market Law Review 783.
  8. D. Barrett, “The Regulatory Space of Equality and Human Rights in Britain: the Role of the Equality and Human Rights Commission” (2019) 39 Legal Studies 247.